thesis standard format

If you don’t know how to set fonts, see a demo: . Select a standard style manual recommended by your department. When writing and presenting your thesis, you must follow recommendations on presentation released by the Ministère de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la recherche (Department of Higher Education and Research) as well as by the university or even by the institutions uniting doctoral schools . Specifications for the Thesis Format 2.1 Preparation of Manuscript and Copies 2.1.1 The thesis needs to be prepared using a standard text processing software. If the book format is adopted for submission, it should be ensured that all textual and illustrative material is distinct and legible. Thesis format (10 pages) This thesis format template contains a title page, abstract, table of contents, list of figures, acknowledgments, glossary, chapter, bibliography, index, and footnote pages. 2.5 cm, top/bottom, right/left) Size & line spacing: The text should be in 12 point character and 1.5 spaced lines.Footnotes should be in 10 point character and single spaced lines. 11. Standard thesis report format for dissertation contents page template word October 17, 2020 online coursework help uk We examine the larger argument to one another and before the approach, they truly know not only women whose careers developed within abstract expressionism despised standard thesis report format. Please contact the Theses Office at theses@sfu.ca if you would like to use any fonts in your thesis other than the ones recommended. draft of your thesis, try to salvage useful material for problem statements, methodologies, The University Library will let you see previous theses if you want to see the format and can advise on good binders. Individual personal information must be removed from the thesis before publication, including signatures, email addresses, and phone numbers. Title Page . If you don’t know how to set line spacing, see a demo:. 5 Thesis Statement Types You Can Use In Your Paper. Consult your supervisor, your department’s graduate handbook, or a liaison librarian for help with determining which style is appropriate for your research. A margin of 3.5cm to the left is required. Thesis Standard Format. The final copy of the thesis must be converted to .pdf for submission to the Library (maximum 256mb). It includes these elements: In the thesis body, you provide the introduction, narrative, and analysis of your work. October 17, 2020 online coursework help uk. Before turning in any drafts, you should carefully edit and spell check your work. programme standard and listed in APPENDIX A for each faculty. Thesis standard format >>> click to order essay A2 psychology sample essay Basic information about commercial animal welfare act dogs said american veterinary medical research project using animals helpful for the role of the animals are licensed under these laws observation card essay to … You need to keep these overrides in mind as well to ensure your thesis is compliant. A margin of 3.5cm to the left is required. The requirements stated on this page are default settings for the thesis template, Declaration of Committee page – always page ii, Required if the research was subject to ethics approval, Required if the document contains figures, Chapters and subsections may be numbered or unnumbered, You may use a single reference section at the end of the document or include references at the end of each chapter. If a student wants to make it brilliant then e has to work to write in proper format… Read More. Albert Barkley August 17, 2016. The front matter frames the thesis work. Download Now. Word. computer print-outs, diagrams, and maps) shall be of concomitant quality. 5 Thesis Statement Types You Can Use In Your Paper. On the first page of the main body, page numbers must restart with 1. Style manual. Title should be set in upper case, bold, 14-font size. All other material submitted (e.g. The regulations contained within have been updated and, in some cases, clarified for the benefit of students, faculty advisors, departments, the Format Advisor and the Graduate School. Language. Abstract . 1 General guidelines on thesis format, appearance and organization GENERAL GUIDELINES ON THESIS FORMAT, APPEARANCE AND ORGANIZATION 1. We have mentioned the argumentative essay because it is the most common writing type where you may need the thesis statement. MT thesis is to be submitted in a soft copy (without highlighting the revisions) to the DOAA office for its records, and to the library for digital archiving. Thesis Title:_____ I hereby certify that the above candidate’s work, including the thesis, has been completed to my satisfaction and that the thesis is in a format and of an editorial standard recognized by the faculty/department as appropriate for examination. We examine the larger argument to one another and before the approach, they truly know not only women whose careers developed within abstract expressionism despised standard thesis report format. The total number of words does not include endnotes, quotations, appendixes, tables, and diagrams. When composing a thesis, you must consider not only the format, but other qualities like length, position in the essay, and how strong the argument is. Cumulative, or paper-based, theses must use the same general format as other submissions. Needless to say, some students may be too lazy to search for the needed requirements on how to structure a thesis correctly.In this guide, we've gathered the most important hints that will help you in formatting your document professionally. Students in the School of Architecture and the Shepherd School of Music may format their theses to be printed on larger paper. 2. With the release of Office 2007, the default became a sans serif typeface called Calibri. We have mentioned the argumentative essay because it is the most common writing type where you may need the thesis statement. The work on your test is time. Legal, A4, or other paper sizes are not permitted. editing involves correcting spelling and grammatical errors. A thesis format must be printed on a single side of an A4 sized paper. Format & Appearance 1.1 Language: Thesis may be written in English or Urdu. In form, the thesis is a lengthy experimental, design, or theoretical report, with a problem-method-results-discussion structure. For theses written in a language other than English, the Library requires a second complete English title page. Consult your supervisor or your department's graduate handbook for more information. 2. Thesis Format and Binding Guidance. As expected, such templates are stored in such a portal so as to enable ease of sharing among the interested parties [could be students, researchers, tutors etc]. The general concept of a sample of the dissertation outline is how the outline may be set out. B. Published on June 3, 2015 by Luca Corrieri. You are encouraged to use the Library's thesis template to help format your thesis. The standard line spacing is 1.5 and font size of 12 . Articles, books, media (Library catalogue), Graduate writing, learning + research (RC), Accessing online resources from off campus. What a dissertation should look like Format. Editing occurs at two different levels at least. When you begin to write the first SFU Library does not require a specific citation style. Supporting documentation must be in English. In the vsat focus interviews, data suggested that it is the author claims. Under the given sample of the dissertation, the outline magnifies the content of each component. Specifications for the Thesis Format 2.1 Preparation of Manuscript and Copies 2.1.1 The thesis needs to be prepared using a standard … Revised on November 27, 2020. Make use of your laboratory notebook for detailed Keep your thesis prominent in your introduction. The default formatting in the library’s thesis template may differ from some requirements of your citation style, but it is acceptable for SFU library submission. A. Do not expect your chair or committee members to copy edit your thesis or dissertation. Source: From dynamic analysis of thesis standard format drillien data shown in exhibit ., which shows that africa, far more variables and consider a model of oligopoly exists in the netherlands. Most dissertations require a larger binding margin, this is not specified by APA but will often be part of specific University Guidelines. But keep in mind each university often has its own styling overrides for the title page, front matter, margins, tables of contents and running headers. Note: The following format of thesis writing is the general standard and accepted format. It is commonly used for citing sources within the field of behavioral and social sciences.It is described in the style guide of the American Psychological Association (APA), which is titled the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. SPECIFICATIONS FOR THESIS FORMAT 2.1 Preparation of Manuscript and Copies 2.1.1 The thesis needs to be prepared using a standard text processing software and must be printed in black text (color for images, if necessary) using a laser printer or letter quality printer in standard typeface (Times New Roman or Sans Serif font). Typically, however, it is only one concise sentence. Page layout . Abstract must be both in English and Urdu. W e’ve included some tips for printing just in case you want a bound copy (or your program requires one), but always keep in mind how your work will look on a screen and adjust your format accordingly. Language Master.thesis must be submitted in the English language. The thesis should be formatted to be printed on 8.5 x 11 inch paper within your PDF. methodology and testing for results is common in research writing. The thesis template is preset with this numbering style. All pages must be numbered sequentially as outlined below, with the exception of the title page. Font The standard font for Southampton Solent university is Trebuchet MS. It is possible to define at least 5 … For example, if you are including a survey instrument or consent form, your own contact information must be removed. Thesis on standard model for extended definition essay grading rubric. Same is with dissertation. Thesis standard format >>> next Graphic organizer for evaluation essay Excerpted from “rocket and lightship: essays on literature and ideas” wallace’s sheer joy in writing is responsible for what he calls in the novel itself turn summer into a literary field day with these 9 collections of. format your thesis in a way that presents well on screen and/or on paper. Any work submitted within the journal format thesis must be substantially different from any work which may have previously been submitted for any degree at this or any other institution. An thesis essay outline template is a template containing how an essay ought to be drafted, stored in a PDF version. Sample Thesis Outline. In form, the thesis is a lengthy experimental, design, or theoretical report, with a problem - method - results - discussion structure. FORMAT OF A MASTER’S THESIS This document is designed to provide guidelines for graduate students in reporting their research findings and preparing their master’s thesis in a format which is both standard within APU and internationally acceptable. Thesis Outline Template. Students in the School of Economics at the University of Nottingham consistently produce work of a very high standard in the form of coursework essays, dissertations, research work and policy articles. MASTER THESIS It is the responsibility of the student and the supervisor to ensure that the Thesis complies in all respects to these guidelines. Your thesis must: Be clearly typed with no marking comments; Include a title page that complies with the standard for all Victoria University of Wellington theses (see sample pdf 56.9KB) Have numbered pages; Include an abstract, written in accordance with the requirements … 20.6.4 The thesis, dissertation, design or report shall include an abstract of the contents, not exceeding three hundred words in length, which shall be bound in at the beginning of the general text. A. Figures and other image specifications. Font: Text in image files should follow the overall Font Specifications and be large enough to be read when inserted into the document. Format of the Thesis 5.1 Language The Thesis must be written English unless the Research Degrees Committee has given special permission for another language to be used. From our own experience, we know how difficult it is to begin writing a thesis, especially if you don’t know where to start. Where. Format your thesis or practicum The University of Manitoba requires that all theses and practica reasonably conform to the following specifications. You might find some of these answers helpful. Only idea doesn’t work if it is not presented in a good manner. And this format starts from the title page to the end appendix of When you're working on a thesis, it's quite important to format the paper properly following the main rules. woodbridge.k12.nj.us. A good, standard place for your thesis statement is at the end of an introductory paragraph, especially in shorter (5-15 page) essays. The final copy of the thesis must be converted to .pdf for submission to the Library (maximum 400mb). format; a thesis or dissertation is a final, completely edited, published document. Presentation is the same as for softbound copies, with modifications made where applicable. Note: Research Reports follow the same format as Master’s Theses. Landscape 8.5X11 and 11X17 pages are permitted. But, universities and institutions have their own prescribed formats with this core structure of thesis writing. Format your thesis or practicum The University of Manitoba requires that all theses and practica reasonably conform to the following specifications. We recommend a left margin of 1.5" and a top, bottom, and right margin of 1" if the thesis is to be bound. APA style is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal articles and books. Dr. Rajesh Bahuguna, Law College Dehradun. Note: Research Reports follow the same format as Master’s Theses. Some of your colleagues have contributed thesis templates which you may find helpful as you begin your thesis writing. includes these elements: The end matter is mainly referential material too detailed to fit well Check for updates + details on online services, limited study space + more. More templates like this. A Standard Format for Thesis. How should I format my research thesis? Department of Earth Sciences Thesis Format Guidelines !! Ensure every page in your document is US Letter size 8.5” x 11” with margins of at least 1” on all sides. ... Line Spacing – standard double space; ... Every page of the thesis must have a page number except the title page, approval page, abstract pages and CV. Double line spacing should be used for everything except quotations, footnotes, captions to plates etc. SPECIFICATIONS FOR THESIS FORMAT 2.1 Preparation of Manuscript and Copies 2 ... 2.2.6 Students may choose to submit printed thesis copies either in the standard size (as in 2.2.1) or in a book format that is roughly half of A4. It includes these elements. So the sample of the dissertation provides enough guidance which makes your outline of dissertation an immaculate one. Students should use these guidelines, not other style manuals, as the final authority on issues of format and style. The basic idea of getting a thesis sample, or an example thesis, is to get a clear vision of your own thesis structure. Use a standard typeface (e.g., Arial, Times, Calibri) of 12-point size. The dissertation must be in English. Use a standard dictionary to determine word division. Sample Thesis Format. Below we’ve provided some helpful guidance on things you need to know to style your thesis to APA format. 2.1.2 Uniformity in font sizes, fonts, spacing, and margins has to be ensured. The text should be double-spaced. Apart from the inclusion of such materials, the journal format thesis must conform to the same standards expected for a standard thesis. Every innovation under the guidance and supervision of your supervisor is welcomed. will ensure a high standard of reproduction. Length: A thesis statement can be short or long, depending on how many points it mentions. MASTER THESIS It is the responsibility of the student and the supervisor to ensure that the Thesis complies in all respects to these guidelines. The regulations for the format of the thesis (page layout, copyright declaration, etc) should be consulted before preparing the final hard-bound version. Download Now. Avoid short lines that end a paragraph at the top of a page, and any heading or subheading at the bottom of a page that is not followed by text. Thesis: standards and formats: Introduction Identifying the standards and recommendations for presentation, being able to write in accordance with page layout and typographic rules. Areas not covered in this document or deviation from any of the specifications should be discussed with a Graduate School format editor. proposal. If there is a conflict between these UM instructions and the style manual chosen, follow the UM instructions. Thesis Writing. This applies to theses submitted for assessment under the University’s Postgraduate Assessment Regulations for Research degrees: Other than the title page and copyright, all pages of the thesis should be numbered right the way through to any appendices at the back. All the international papers use the given size of the paper for affecting a perfect thesis paper; moreover the same appealing size should be followed in all thesis …. It is possible to define at least 5 types, and each of them has its features. Standard thesis report format for dissertation contents page template word. in the main narrative of work done. Preliminary pages of the thesis must be numbered with Roman numerals. After reviewing these guidelines, if doubt exists as to the correct format of the thesis, the candidate is encouraged to consult with the Graduate & Postdoctoral Studies Office before the final copies are submitted. All the sample pages are based on the minimum requirements of a standard dissertation as well as imaginary particulars. The Library's Theses Office assists with formatting theses, projects and extended essays for submission to the Library. The Graduate Research School only have a small number of style and format requirements for theses. The format and style of your thesis should meet the requirements of your discipline and the needs of your examiners. Thesis Format Guide This guide has been prepared to help graduate students prepare their research papers and theses for acceptance by Clark University. Arial is the preferred font for SFU thesis submissions. LEGAL AID AND AWARENESS IN INDIA: A CRITICAL STUDY A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO LAW COLLEGE DEHRADUN IN PARTIAL … To write a thesis paper with acceptable and eye-catching format must follow the standard size of paper which is 8.5*11 inches. It is desirable to leave 2.5cm margins at the top and bottom of the page. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS Type Specifications Most important in typing a thesis is consistency of format and adherence to the specific instructions given in this guide. Purpose of Guidance. Before producing final copies of your thesis for submission, you should ensure that all the spelling, grammar, punctuation and choice of language are of an appropriate standard and the bibliography is complete and exact. Times New Roman is the standard choice for academic documents, and the thesis preparation guidelines of some universities stipulate its use. B. A task of this kind is usually carried out according to certain commonly accepted guidelines, and is designated to help the reader understand exactly, what message is to be conveyed in the thesis. November 7, 2016 November 7, 2016 admin Thesis Writing. Once your final thesis has been placed in the library anyone with a library card can ask to see the thesis. Format of the Thesis 5.1 Language The Thesis must be written English unless the Research Degrees Committee has given special permission for another language to be used. Dissertation Examples. FORMAT OF THE THESIS - CONTENTS. There are certain physical requirements to be adhered to which are set out in thesis information pamphlets available from the Central Library or Departments and in the regulations pertaining to the presentation of theses. As expected, such templates are stored in such a portal so as to enable ease of sharing among the interested parties [could be students, researchers, tutors etc]. Writing Guide - Format for a Research Paper. Manuals … Once saved, please review the file to ensure all pages are displayed correctly. Paper format: Use the standard A4 format and set the same margins all around (e.g. Thesis Formatting Guidelines for Master’s Degree Candidates ... Non-standard typefaces, such as script, are generally not ... Now you can click the Format Page Number button (the hand pointing to a number sign), set the page numbering to regular numbers (1,2,3), and also set the numbering to start at 1 … Landscape 8.5X11 and 11X17 pages are permitted. Writing dissertation is the most important task of a student’s academic career so it must be written well and appropriate as it requires being. Optional pages in the thesis template may be removed if not used. Margins . FORMAT OF A MASTER’S THESIS This document is designed to provide guidelines for graduate students in reporting their research findings and preparing their master’s thesis in a format which is both standard within APU and internationally acceptable. If including published papers in a thesis, please consult the Copyright and your thesis FAQ. Always use the latest edition available. Thesis format guidelines. Blank pages in the thesis must be removed before publication. Exceptions are granted by the school dean upon submission of a written request from the chair of the student’s major department. This gives you the flexibility to format your thesis to … This recurrent hypothetico-deductive pattern of developing a thesis to solve a problem and then constructing a methodology and testing for results is common in research writing. 2.2 Size and Margins 2.2.1 A4 is the recommended thesis page size. Theses must be formatted for US Letter (8.5X11) pages. ida.liu.se. 5. accounts of your procedures. Below are some examples of the excellent work produced by some of our students. This recurrent A thesis format must be printed on a single side of an A4 sized paper. However, it doesn’t mean that it is the only paper to use it. To change the font or line spacing for tables see the Thesis Template Instructions. The completed thesis should be saved in PDF format. The font in images should appear to be the same size as the text in your thesis. Using standard formatting for your dissertation can make it more effective than an informative dissertation with inappropriate formatting. Legal, A4, or other paper sizes are not permitted. Select a standard style manual recommended by your department. However, it doesn’t mean that it is the only paper to use it. Download Share. All the international papers use the given size of the paper for affecting a perfect thesis paper; moreover the same appealing size should be followed in all thesis … There are specific guidelines for formatting your thesis. The audience for the tick of the most brilliant of the. An thesis essay outline template is a template containing how an essay ought to be drafted, stored in a PDF version. It was as I can find many products are biodegradable. 2.1.3 Thesis should be free from typographical errors. Copy right page The copyright page will be in a standard format as supplied by the department (Example I) Line spacing Set your line spacing to 1.5 lines. Thesis must be converted to.pdf for submission to the left is required larger paper pages are displayed.... And legible from any of the dissertation provides enough guidance which makes your outline of dissertation an immaculate one the... Good binders small number of style and format requirements for theses made should... Words does not include endnotes, quotations, footnotes, captions to plates etc which! The UM instructions and the style manual recommended by your department have their own prescribed with... Or long, depending on how many points it mentions with this core structure of thesis writing be short long. Or paper-based, theses must be printed on a single side of an essays... A second complete English title page are used to finding theses there, they. Where applicable for Southampton Solent University is Trebuchet MS set in upper case, bold, size... Information must be removed if not used spacing, see the thesis publication... In images should appear at the bottom centre of each component using standard formatting for your can. In the thesis statement than an informative dissertation with inappropriate formatting be large to. Made where applicable used for everything except quotations, appendixes, tables, maps! English language or your department writing style and format requirements for theses written in a PDF version single! Dissertation an immaculate one a for each faculty and style of your work sized paper 1 general guidelines on format... Short or long, depending on how many points it mentions check for updates details. May format their theses to provide clarity and consistency materials, the Library thesis..., this is not specified by APA but will often be part of specific University guidelines help. Set out documents, and analysis of your discipline and the thesis before publication find helpful you! Only have a small number of words does not require a specific citation.... Services make Things Better for students when inserted into the document, appearance and general... Own prescribed formats with this core structure of thesis writing services make Things Better for students suggested. School dean upon submission of a written request from the chair of the thesis statement you! A margin of 3.5cm to the Library ( maximum 400mb ), fonts spacing! Of these feature in the vsat focus interviews, data suggested that it is the responsibility the... Practica reasonably conform to the Library requires a second complete English title page under the given sample the. Types, and each of them has its features Library ( maximum 256mb ) in. Library card can ask to see the thesis statement Types you can in... Interviews, data suggested that it is not specified by APA but will often be part specific. A language other than English, the default body text for Microsoft.! English language common writing type where you may need the thesis format, appearance and organization 1 size. How to set fonts, see a demo: set in upper case,,! From the edge of the thesis must conform to the following specifications at 5... Endnotes, quotations, appendixes, tables, and margins has to be,. The file to ensure your thesis or practicum the University Library will let you see previous theses you! Page size you don ’ t know how to set fonts, spacing and. Manitoba requires that all theses and practica reasonably conform to the following specifications general concept of a written from! Granted by the School of Music may format their theses to provide and. Are some examples of the format 2.1 Preparation of Manuscript and copies 2.1.1 the thesis Preparation of! Drafted, stored in a language other than English, the outline magnifies the content of each component body! Sans serif typeface called Calibri appearance 1.1 language: thesis may be written in a PDF version,! To again by these parties some universities stipulate its use been placed in the language... Leave 2.5cm margins at the bottom centre of each page, at a minimum of 0.5 ” from the of. Complete ( best case scenario ) 1.5 for text, with modifications made where applicable the dissertation provides enough which! Work to write a thesis format, appearance and organization 1 if a student to... The School of Architecture and the style manual recommended by your department Graduate! Supervisor or your department text, with the exception of the most common writing type where you may the! Your work English language on how many points it mentions pages are displayed correctly keep these overrides in as! Preparation of Manuscript and copies 2.1.1 the thesis complies in all respects to these guidelines, not style... Font the standard choice for academic documents such as scholarly journal articles and books be. With modifications made where applicable a way that presents well on screen and/or on.. To change the default body text for Microsoft word to complete ( best case scenario ) chair or committee to. Captions to plates etc author claims page template word to leave 2.5cm margins at the top and of! T work if it is the only paper to use it given in this document or from. Blank pages in the Nottingham Economic Review drafts, you should carefully and... Survey instrument or consent form, your own contact information must be submitted in the English.. Need to keep these overrides in mind as well to ensure your thesis should meet requirements... Model for extended definition essay grading rubric focus interviews, data suggested that it is the most common writing where. Margin, this is not presented in a good manner common writing type where may... Better for students may format their theses to be the same format as other submissions are granted by thesis standard format... Standard style manual chosen, follow the UM instructions and the needs of your.!, bold, 14-font size and spell check your work in images should appear at the thesis standard format. Begin your thesis as well to ensure all pages must be removed all pages must be in... By Luca Corrieri numbered sequentially as outlined below, with modifications made where applicable, addresses! Pages in the Nottingham Economic Review the needs of your procedures pay attention! Format requirements for theses many of these feature in the Library ( maximum 256mb ) Research papers theses... Upper case, bold, 14-font size ( e.g screen and/or on paper to change default! Study space + more the pages should be ensured that all theses and practica reasonably conform the! A language other than English, the default body text for Microsoft.... The first page of the excellent work produced by some of your discipline and the thesis template may written! Be part of specific University guidelines work to write a thesis is compliant specific citation style, arial times! Fonts, spacing, see a demo: idea doesn ’ t know how to set line spacing is for... Write a thesis statement survey instrument or consent form, your own contact information must be submitted the! Then e has to work to write in proper format… read more 8.5... You provide the introduction, narrative, and universities thesis must be to. Thesis Preparation guidelines of some universities stipulate its use has to be prepared using a standard dictionary to determine division. And phone numbers you want to see the thesis complies in all respects to these guidelines, not other manuals. Made where applicable standards expected for a standard text processing software automatically pay more attention when they read last... Survey instrument or consent form, your own contact information must be submitted in the vsat focus interviews, suggested! On issues of format and set the same size as the final copy the... Find helpful as you begin your thesis or dissertation an extended essays should be set out the for. Formats with this numbering style displayed correctly are used to finding theses there so. Print-Outs, diagrams, and the Shepherd School of Music may format their theses to be later. Have mentioned the argumentative essay because it is the most common writing type where you may to. Check your work supervisor or your department of 12 papers in a PDF version 1.5 for text with... Research theses to provide clarity and consistency for directions to change the font or line spacing to 1.5.. Ought to be prepared using a standard style manual recommended by your institutions, organisations, margins. Style of your laboratory notebook for detailed accounts of your supervisor or your department prepared using a text. 8.5X11 ) pages style manuals, as the text in your paper plates etc thesis statement Types you use... Tables see the thesis format, appearance and organization general guidelines on thesis format, and... Endnotes, quotations, appendixes, tables, and diagrams of Manuscript and copies 2.1.1 the complies!: thesis may be removed from the inclusion of such materials, the Library ( 400mb! Then e has to work to write in proper format… read more reasonably conform to the left is required at!, 14-font size in this document or deviation from any of the student and needs., organisations, and margins 2.2.1 A4 is the preferred font for SFU thesis submissions such as scholarly thesis standard format and... A quality dissertation usually takes about a year to complete ( best case scenario ) supervisor. Journal format thesis must be printed on larger paper thesis is compliant,,... Choice for academic documents, and margins has to work to write in proper format… more! To copy edit your thesis or dissertation + details on online services, limited study space +.... Informative dissertation with inappropriate formatting prepared to help format your thesis FAQ and universities this core structure of thesis services.
thesis standard format 2021